Republic of Korea
Presidential Unit Citation
Editors Note: At our November KWVA Chapter Meeting, the members were informed that the Department of Defense recently released a list of military units that were eligible to wear the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.
In August 1951 the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation was presented to all of the Units that participated in the amphibious assault at Inchon, Korea and other specific actions during the period 15 September 1950 to 24 December 1950. However, the United States Government limited the presentation, of this award, to the specific units involved in these actions. These restriction appear to have recently been rescinded and now members of all of the specified military units that were involved in supporting these actions are eligible to wear the Korean Presidential Citation. A list of the units now eligible to wear the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation is listed below:
Headquarters and Headquarters Company X Corps
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery X Corps Artillery
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery 5th Field Artillery Group
50th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion (Self-propelled)
92nd Armored Field Artillery Battalion
8221st Army Unit, Field Artillery Topo and Met Detachment
2nd Engineer Special Brigade
44th Engineer Construction Battalion
58th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company
73d Engineer Combat Battalion
79th Engineer Construction Battalion
185th Engineer Combat Battalion
53d Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment
4th Signal Battalion
56th Amphibious Truck and Tractor Battalion
The Presidential Unit Citation
The X Corps and attached units are cited for extra-ordinary herorism in combat against an armed enemy of the United Nations during the period 15 to 30 September 1950 for the planning and execution of the amphibious landing at Inchon, Korea, the crossing of the Han River and the Capture of the capital city of Seoul and effecting the break through enemy lines to link up with Eight Army forces south of Suwon, and during the period 18 October 24 December 1950 for the heroic evacuation of X Corps troops and civilian refugees from the Huntgnam beachhead.
An amphibious assault at Inchon, Korea, was magnificently effected by X Corps on 15 September, only 30 days after the plan was initiated. The success achived demonstrate a complete mastery of the technique of amphibious warfare and clockwork coordination between the units and the service of X Corps. This successful amphibious assault struck by X Corp into the heart of the enemy-occupied Korea liberated its national capital of Seoul enabling the restoration of city and the reestablishment of the Korean National Assembly in the old capital city.
The arrival of X Corps in northeast Korea brogut about the free voting of the citizens of Wonsan to select the civil government for this large port city for the first time in many years. This democratic freedom was the first of many to be experienced by citizens throughout Hangyong-Namdo and Hamgyong-Pukto Provinces during the operation of X Corps. On 8 December 1950, the Commanding General, X Corps was ordered by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, to consolidate his troops in northeast zone Korea into a perimeter defense and to evacuate all United Nations Forces as soon as an orderly evacuation could be effected. The evacuation order presented problems to X Corps Command which had never before faced an American Army. The X Corps evacuation plan called for the movement of all equipment and supplies including some 17,500 vehicle, 350,0000 measurement tons of bulk cargo, in addition to approximately 105,000 troops and the maximum number of North Korean civilian refugees.
Although it was known that the time available for the execution plan would depend largely on tactical consideration and how hard the enemy pressed his attack against the perimeter, the estimated time needed to clear the ports from the date that loading began at Hungnam was approximately 10 days. The stupendous task of extricating the 1st Marine Division and elements of the 7th Division from the Chosin Reservoir Area, the marshaling of transportation and supplies of all types, together with the most difficult task of traffic control of units and masses of refugees during these operations, were solved by heroic efforts on the part of all elements of X Corps troops.
By 1400 hours, 24 December , all United Nations Forces and 98,000 North Korean civilian refugees who had proven themselves loyal to the Republic Korea were completely evacuated from the perimeter. May of the key Government officials were brought out by military aircraft while others were evacuated by water transportation.
The outstanding accomplishments of X Corps in the flight against the forces of aggression in Korea rendered a great service to the Republic of Kore and has won the undying gratitude of the Government and people of that Republic.